Računovodstvo, revizija i financije

Računovodstvo, revizija i financije


Samo smo ljudi! - uvodnik

rrif - 5.2009, str. 13

Expenses for Fines, Forced Collection of Taxes, Penalties and Compensation of Damages

rrif - 5.2009, str. 15
The expenses for fines, penalties, compensation of damages and other similar expenses represent a forced collection of payment due to the damages, fines and other contractual obligations according to which a company is responsible to other entities, companies and individuals. The article deals with a tax position of such expenses and their recording in bookkeeping.

Damages on Enterprise Assets

rrif - 5.2009, str. 20
The damages made on the enterprise assets have instant and delayed consequences on its operations. The instant consequence is characterized by decreased value of the asset which has been damaged or completely lost (completely damaged asset). The delayed consequences are often more difficult to measure and are perceivable as a missed profit due to impossibility to use such an asset and interruption of work. Damage can hardly be prevented, but its consequences can be decreased through an insurance of asset on time. The author of this article writes about damages on enterprise assets from the accounting and taxation viewpoints.

Accounting of Income Based on Use of Company's Own Products, Goods and Services

rrif - 5.2009, str. 27
In their business practice companies often use their own products, goods and services for the needs of their business operations. Such a  use mostly refers to the investments into long term assets and construction of long term assets by the company itself, the investments into short term assets and expenses for promotional activities. The author of the article analyses the accounting of company's own products, goods and services with a specific attention to the recording of internal income on the above stated grounds.

Accounting of Vegetable Production

rrif - 5.2009, str. 32
Investments into vegetable production represent short term assets. When a company, a cooperative or domestic industry, registered for agricultural activities, grow vegetables and some other crops to be harvested in the following year, the calculation of production should comprise the distribution of costs for each type of production (crops). If a farm grows only vegetables which are to be grown and harvested in the same calendar year, the calculation of the production may exclude the distribution of costs for specific vegetable types.

Filing of Bookkeeping Documents, Records and Business Records

rrif - 5.2009, str. 35
After drawing up of financial and tax reports all the documents and records referring to the past year should be filed. The period of obligatory filing of accounting and tax documents is not clearly determined. The new General Tax Act introduced some changes which have to be taken into consideration. The article deals with filing periods and states what is to be done with the documents after the expiration of the obligatory filing periods.

Application of New IFRS No. 8 – Business Segments

rrif - 5.2009, str. 39
A business segment is a constituent part of the society which performs or will start performing the activity that can make income and expenses, including the expenses and income with other parts of the same company. Business results of the segment are regularly controlled by the company management in order to make proper decisions on asset distribution to the segment and evaluation of its performance. This means that specific information should be collected for the segment.

Company's Own Products and Expired Liabilities

rrif - 5.2009, str. 41
  • Workshop of Budgetary Accounting
  • The article presents the examples of recording business events referring to the use of company's own products and expired liabilities.

    Temporary Working Contract

    rrif - 5.2009, str. 43
    The accounting of non-profit organizations does not comprise specific accounts for the liabilities and expenses referring to the activities performed according to the temporary working contract. They usually refer to the expenses for intellectual and personal services, Business events are recorded on the accounts according to the type of the performed activity.

    How to Keep Employees despite Problems with Business Operations

    rrif - 5.2009, str. 45
    The recession in economy causes disturbances in realization of the expected income which does not cover the business expenses, so the expenses are to be reduced. The reduction of labour costs is the most difficult act. Unfortunately, the unemployment rate is constantly increasing.The author of the article deals with the issue if the employer and employee can together find the way to keep the employment status even if this required some reduced rights referring to the working time and salaries, all in order to keep the minimum of social security. The article tries to find some solutions which would not be against the provisions of the Labour Act and some other by-laws passed in accordance with this Act.

    Internal Audit as Instrument of Improving Efficiency in Public Sector

    rrif - 5.2009, str. 51
    The introduction and strengthening of the function of internal audit is aimed at a higher responsibility for control of public assets and their efficient use and management. The internal audit has thus become an important part of the entire audit activity taking a special place in the context of decision-making and good management in the public sector. The aim of this paper, which includes the conclusions of empiric research, is to stress the importance of the internal audit in the public sector and explanation how it can make the organization management easier in order to achieve the determined goals, to reduce the risk of making mistakes and irregularities and to make influence on increased quality of service provision. The proper and timely operations can contribute to a better efficiency of each sector where it functions (health, education and alike) or the public sector as a whole.

    Recognition of Income - Financial Instruments and Capital Amount

    rrif - 5.2009, str. 59
  • From International Accounting Standards Board
  • Changes of Financial Regulations

    rrif - 5.2009, str. 60

    New Determination of Capital Transfer Tax

    rrif - 5.2009, str. 63
    The main regulation which determines the sales of real estate in the Republic of Croatia is the Capital Transfer Tax. However, special regulations determine the specifics of real estate sales referring to the emergence of tax liabilities if real estate is purchased by foreign residents or in case of tax exemptions. The author of the article deals with such specifics.

    Activities and Receipts of Branch Office Managers, Tourist Guides and Tourist Escorts

    rrif - 5.2009, str. 67
    Tourist services comprise, among other things, the services provided by a tourist guide and a tourist escort, whereas tourist agencies should employ a  branch office manager. In order to perform tourist services the above stated persons have to pass certain exams. The authors of the article write about the ways in which tourist guides, branch office managers and tourist escorts can perform their activities including the taxation of their services.

    Forced Taxation through Distraint of Receivables Distrainer Claims from Debtor

    rrif - 5.2009, str. 74
    The condition for initiation of a distraint process is the existence of a tax debt. A tax debt represents the debt of a tax payer for taxes, contributions, fees and other public contributions, for the collection of which the Tax Administration is authorized.The author of the article analyses the procedure of a tax body upon forced collection of cash payment by a distrainer. A distraint process can be carried out on cash assets of a debtor, movables, other property or tangible rights and real estate.

    Nove svote posebnog poreza na cigarete

    rrif - 5.2009, str. 77
    Od 1. lipnja 2009. plaća se posebni porez na cigarete, i to specifični posebni porez od 180,00 kn za 1000 komada, uz zadržavanje proporcionalnoga posebnog poreza 30% od maloprodajne cijene cigareta. Plaća se na sve skupine cigareta, bez obzira na to jesu li razvrstane u skupinu A, B ili C. Navedene izmjene propisane su Zakonom o izmjeni Zakona o posebnom porezu na duhanske proizvod (Nar. nov., br. 38/09.), koji je stupio je na snagu 6. travnja 2009.
  • Novosti u vezi s posebnim porezom na duhanske proizvode
  • Entrepreneur’s Salary in 2009

    rrif - 5.2009, str. 88
    An entrepreneur's salary represents the income from non-independent work, which persons who perform crafts activities, free professions and other activities similar to crafts industry can pay as a salary when they become profit tax payers. They are physical persons who independently perform activities and who cannot employ themselves and thus pay salaries. When they become profit tax payers they lose the possibility of using a personal deduction and other benefits determined by the Income Tax Act. Therefore, it is possible for them as profit tax payers to pay a part of their earnings as a salary, which in terms of taxation does not differ from the employees' salaries.

    Consent to Perform Construction Activities

    rrif - 5.2009, str. 95
    The author of the article deals with the issues of the Rulebook on consent to perform construction activities, which was passed according the Act on Architectural and Engineering Activities and Activities in Urban Planning and Construction. Some issues are rather different than the previous ones such as the number of construction works which can be performed without a previous consent has been increased and the requests made by constructors are simpler.

    Control of State Inspectorate in Inspection of Tourist Agencies

    rrif - 5.2009, str. 106
    Within the scope of their authorization the inspectors of the State Inspectorate monitor the application of about twenty acts and by-laws as well as business practice rules, which regulate tourist activities.A tourist agency is a company, a sole trader, a craftsman or their organizational unit, which provide the services of travel organization or the mediation services regarding travel and accommodation of tourists.

    Safety of Products on Market according to New Act on General Product Safety

    rrif - 5.2009, str. 114
    The new Act on General Product Safety came into effect on 17 March 2009. Accordingly, the additional compliance to the EU Directives was made, comprising the consumer protection policy in the field of product safety aimed at more complete and higher level of health protection and consumer safety in view of possible harmful risks of the purchased and used products.

    Cancellation of Contract on Employment due to Business Situation – Current Issues

    rrif - 5.2009, str. 122
    Due to the global economic crisis a large number of employees in Croatia and EU member countries as well as other countries in the world are forced to make all or a part of their employees redundant.The article deals with essential issues regarding cancellation of the contract on employment due to the poor business situation.

    Leave or Reduced Working Time due to Child Care

    rrif - 5.2009, str. 131
    Parent rights to leave and child care with heavy developmental handicaps are regulated by the Act on maternity and parent supports and the Rulebook on parent rights with developmentally handicapped children, according to which they have the right to leave or reduced working time due to child care. The new Rulebook became effective on 1 April 2009. The author of the article presents what the employer should do upon receipt of the decision made by the Croatian Health Insurance Fund according to which an employee may exercise some of the above stated rights and states the new issues of the Rulebook.

    Prolonged Increments for Old Age Pension Fund

    rrif - 5.2009, str. 138
    The prolonged increments for old age pension fund is one of the possibilities to continually preserve such a status in particular cases such as unemployment due to cancellation of the contract on employment, unpaid days of absence, unpaid maternity leave until the child's third year, etc. The condition for such continuous insurance status is previous obligatory insurance according to some obligations, which was not cancelled longer than 12 months ago.

    Old Age Pension Insurance for Seamen

    rrif - 5.2009, str. 145
    The old age pension insurance of seamen within the system of obligatory old age pension insurance system based on generation solidarity, which is in competence of the Croatian Old Age Pension Insurance Fund, has undergone a number of amendments and norm solutions in the recent years. The regulations of this insurance are determined by the Act on Old Age Pension Insurance Act and the appropriate provisions of the Marine Bulletin.    The article deals with the old age pension insurance of seamen from 1 January 2008.

    Continuation of Distraint through Change of Subject and Means of Distraint

    rrif - 5.2009, str. 158
    The author of this article deals with an important distraint institute – continuation of distraint through the change of the subject and means of distraints. The court determines the distraint through the means and on the subjects stated in the distraint proposal. If the final decision on distraint cannot be realized through a particular means or on the particular subject, a distraint officer can suggest a new means or subject of distraint. In such a case the court will make a new decision on distraint and accordingly continue the distraint process. The distraint determined in the previous decision will be cancelled if a distraint officer withdraws the proposal in which it has been determined or due to some other reasons within the law. If a distraint officer does not make the above stated proposal within 2 months after the court notice on impossibility to carry out the distraint, the distraint will be cancelled.

    Business Trips for Civil Servants and Employees according to Collective Agreement

    rrif - 5.2009, str. 166
    The employer can send a civil servant or an employee on a business trip in order to perform the activities within the scope of their work. The employer is obliged to compensate certain expenses of a business trip in the way and under the conditions determined by certain segments of the labour law. The Labour Act does not determine the condition and the way in which the above stated expenses should be compensated. Such a right for civil cervants and employees is defined in the Collective Agreement for civil cervants and employees.

    Small Farm – Limitations and Possibilities of Development

    rrif - 5.2009, str. 173
    In terms of figures small farms make up more than a half of income and net profit among the enterprises in the Republic of Croatia. Accordingly, such a form of entrepreneurship deserves a considerable attention due to the fact that it can initiate development, innovations, private incentives, advanced technology and alike. Therefore, there is a need for proper financing, better access to information, creation of the appropriate enterprise networks, clusters and alike.

    Financial Programs for Sanation of World Economic Crisis

    rrif - 5.2009, str. 178
    Financial Programs for Sanation of World Economic Crisis
    Zakon o trgovačkim društvima  (1)