Računovodstvo, revizija i financije

Računovodstvo, revizija i financije


Kontni plan - uvodnik glavnog urednika

rrif - 11.2015, str. 15

Financial and Managerial Accounting (Part 1)

rrif - 11.2015, str. 19

The concrete production depends to the great extent on the way of distributing indirect costs on products. Depending on the production characteristics, it is important to determine the corresponding guidelines of distributing such costs on the products. All these issues are important, in order to obtain a precise calculation of the costs of the product prices.

Financing Political Parties from Viewpoint of Donators

rrif - 11.2015, str. 27

Legal and physical persons are allowed to give donations to political parties. Political parties may be donated for their regular operations or for the organization of the political promotion. In such a case there are limitations and the obligatory documents to be presented. The expenditure, i.e. the expenses for donations have a specific position in the taxation system, comprising both the profit tax and the income tax.

Promotion and Entertainment Costs in Taxation System

rrif - 11.2015, str. 33

The promotion costs are common costs in entrepreneurial activities. They arise for the purpose of promoting the company’s products and services among consumers and buyers. Due to their function in the taxation system, they are recognized in terms of taxes, too. The entertainment costs are also common in the business world. However, they are not completely recognized in terms of taxation. There is no possibility to recognize the right to the reduction of the pre-tax for such costs. In terms of profit tax, the entertainment costs are only partially recognized. This article analyses various forms of promotion and entertainment costs and the ways of their delimitation in accounting.

Accounting for Derivative Financial Assets

rrif - 11.2015, str. 49

Derivative financial assets represent a financial instrument, i.e. the second contract which has some specific characteristics, and whose value changes the bases for the changes of interest rates, the prices of other financial interests, goods, exchange rates and some other values according to the contract. Derivative financial assets do not require any start-up net investments or such an investment is lower than required according to other contracts. Derivative financial assets are to be settled on the specific date in the future. The aim of the derivatives is the exposure to various risks and the management of profits and losses, which may correct the volatility of the results. 

Received Invoices and Unjustifiably Received Cash

rrif - 11.2015, str. 62

In business operations various types of invoices are received, which have been issued by business partners. Some of them are addressed to the recipient of the goods or the user of the service, whereas the other ones are not. Depending on the circumstances regarding the receipt of the invoice and the way of its settlement, business events are recorded differently. In the case of the receipt of the incorrectly transferred cash assets, the attention should be paid to two basic facts: the received cash does not have a counterbalance in income and should be returned.

Financing of Political Parties from Viewpoint of Political Parties

rrif - 11.2015, str. 64

Political parties are legal persons who have their own field of work – political activities. Special acts determine the way of their establishment, work and termination of work, The activities performed by the political parties may be divided in the regular political activity and the activity referring to the elections. Such activities have the corresponding resources. In the regular political activities, the important sources of financing are membership fees. In some other activities one of the sources of financing are gift giving or donations.
Political parties may have their assets on various giro accounts. The purpose of some giro accounts is determined, i.e. it depends on the specific source of financing, for example, donations should be paid on a separate giro account. If some political party obtains funds from donations, it should issue the corresponding documents and prepare the corresponding reports. Political parties prepare their reports in the non-profit accounting system, but are obliged to apply the determined system of reporting regarding the elections.

Gift Giving and Disputed Tax Receivables

rrif - 11.2015, str. 72

The receipt of gifts in objects represents a gift giving for a non-profit organization. Non-profit organizations should be cautious and check whether such a gift can be classified as a small inventory. According to the Act on Financial Transactions and Non-Profit Accounting the donations which are recorded in the Chart of Accounts as non-financial assets, comprising a small inventory which is depreciated, are recognized in the balance sheet as deferred income. Such an income is classified in the income of the accounting period according to the expenses for the use of the non-financial assets in the period of their use. The disputed tax receivables from the previous accounting period should be correspondingly presented in the business records of the reporting period.  

New Payroll, Salaries and Compensation of Salaries

rrif - 11.2015, str. 74

The Amendments to the Rulebook on the Contents of the Calculation of Salaries, Compensation for Salaries or Severance Payments (Official Gazette no. 102/15) became effective on 1 October 2015. The Amendments refer to the new forms of the calculation of salaries and compensation for salaries (IP1 Form) and the form of the calculation of the unpaid salary and compensation for salary (NP1 Form). Upon preparation of payrolls, employers should take into account the fact that the NP1 represents a document which subjects to the distraint procedure, whereas the IP1 Form contains the information on the way of the calculation of the salary and public payments.

New Procedure for Non-Payers of Salaries

rrif - 11.2015, str. 85

The application of the provisions of the Act on the Insurance of Employees’ Receivables in the Case of the Employer’s Bankruptcy, passed on 1 September 2015, also comprises the employees of the employers who are not in bankruptcy but have a blocked account due to the impossibility to pay the salaries. In such a case, the employees have the right to the payment of the minimum salary i.e. the compensation for the salary in the case of sick-leave from the State Budget funds. The payment is made by the Agency for Insurance of Employees’ Receivables in the Case of the Employer’s Bankruptcy. The Agency thus takes over the employer’s debts and gives to the employer a seven-day deadline to pay back the debts to the Agency, including the possibility to repay the contributions on the salary in three instalments starting with the date of deblocking the account.

Salaries of Workers with Right to Insurance Years with Extended Duration (enlarged Number of Years of Service)

rrif - 11.2015, str. 93

The workers who perform the activities which endanger their life and health and the disabled persons with the specific degree of disability have the right to the insured years of services with extended duration. Thus the period of 12 months of insurance may be regarded as the period of 14,15,16 and 18 months of years of service, depending on the work they perform, which is determined by the special regulations. Such a status of the insured person should be entered in the application form for pension insurance i.e. in the records of the insured persons in pension insurance. In order to exercise such a right, employers are obliged to pay special contributions for the pension insurance (Pillar 1 and Pillar 2) on the workers’ salaries at the special rates determined by the Act on Contributions. The contributions paid on such a base are to be presented in the JOPPD Form.

Compensation of Salary during Mobilisation

rrif - 11.2015, str. 104

A number of workers have recently been mobilised, in order to help the people affected by floods, the acceptance of the refugees, and alike. The article presents the topic of calculation of the public payments and reporting in the JOPPD Form on the payments to the operational forces engaged in the protection and saving people during the mobilisation and the provision of help in the Republic of Croatia and outside the territory of the Republic of Croatia.

Reporting on Due and Uncollected Receivables in OPZ-STAT-1 Form

rrif - 11.2015, str. 113

The Rulebook on Binding Opinions, Correction of Application, Statistical Reports and Tax Settlement states the obligation to submit statistical reports to the Tax Administration, in order to determine the facts important for taxation. The statistical report is to be submitted in the OPZ-STAT-1 Form, which is a constituent part of the Rulebook. The first OPZ-STAT-1 Form should be delivered until 20 February 2016, at the latest. It should comprise all the due and uncollected receivables as at 31 December 2015. The Form should be sent by email after a three-month period. It should also contain the data on the due and uncollected receivables from buyers in the EU and the third countries. Exceptionally, the due receivables from the buyers from the third countries and the receivables based on the invoices issued to the persons who are not tax payers, may be recorded in the total amount of the due and unpaid invoices.  

Sales of Goods on Territory of Other EU Member Countries and Registration for VAT Needs

rrif - 11.2015, str. 122

The author of the article presents the cases in which the Croatia’s tax payers should be registered for VAT needs in other EU member countries when selling their goods on their territory. The article includes a table overview of some EU countries which apply the system of the local reverse charge upon the sales of the goods by the tax payers from other EU member countries on their territory. The article also states the contact addresses of the tax offices in which it is possible to obtain the information on the obligations of the tax payers upon the sales of their goods on the territory of these countries.

VAT Taxation of Transportation of Goods and Passengers

rrif - 11.2015, str. 127

The taxation of transportation of goods or services, has now been differently determined than before the Republic of Croatia was accessed to the European Union. This especially refers to the determination of the taxation place of the transportation services outside the border of the Republic of Croatia, regardless of the fact whether such a transportation service was provided on the territory of the EU or the third countries.  It should be pointed out that the service of the transportation of passengers is always taxed according to the place where the transportation is provided, i.e. according to the distances done. However, in the case of transportation of the goods between tax payer, i.e. between the tax payers from the Republic of Croatia and the EU or the third countries, the principle B2B is to be applied. The transportation to the physical persons outside the EU is taxed according to the kilometres done. In the EU it is taxed according to the place of the beginning of the transportation.


Payments from Prize Winning Games and Contests

rrif - 11.2015, str. 144

The receipts realized from prize-winning games or contests, organized under the equal conditions in which all the persons have the right to participate in, according to the corresponding act, are not regarded as the income and can be paid without the calculation of the income tax. The article explains the difference between organizing a prize winning game and the contest.


Professional Scepticism of Auditors

rrif - 11.2015, str. 151

The auditing standards stress the fact that the auditor should perform the audit with an attitude of the professional scepticism. The article explains the term of the professional scepticism and presents the results of the research conducted by the author regarding the professional scepticism of the auditor and the risk estimate of the false financial reporting.


Može li se izvještaj o dobitku učiniti uporabljivijim

rrif - 11.2015, str. 157

1. Uvod
2. Cilj i djelokrug rasprave
3. Sažetak rasprava
4. Zaključno

OECD-ove mjere za sprječavanje poreznih evazija

rrif - 11.2015, str. 159

1. EK planira uspostaviti uniju tržišta kapitala
2. Dogovorena razmjena informacija o poreznim dogovorima
3. Konzultacije o jednostavnijem plaćanju PDV-a na e-transakcije
4. EK za okončanje poreznog režima koji favorizira zaduživanje kompanija
5. Europski sud pravde: Put na i s posla treba uključiti u radno vrijeme
6. OECD predlaže mjere za sprječavanje porezne evazije

Application for Funds for Project Investment in Production Technology of SMEs

rrif - 11.2015, str. 161

The article presents a brief outline of a complex system of granting entrepreneurial projects to micro, small and medium-sized enterprises for co-financing from the ERDF in the tender “The investment in production technology of SMEs”. Certain activities are presented in tables or graphically in order to cut the way through the extensive rules and the documentation. The stated examples point to the particular parts regarding the specific elaboration of the project according to the determined conditions.
In the case of some open questions regarding planning of the particular project and preparation of the required documents, entrepreneurs may contact the advisor (such a service may be recorded as the expenses for the project activities), or may ask the question on the website of the provider of the state subsidy.

Reporting on Uncollected Receivables and Keeping Solvency

rrif - 11.2015, str. 173

The article presents the possibility of preparing the reports on the uncollected receivables from buyers, which were due and were not paid on time. Although such information are important to the company’s management in order to properly manage the liquidity, they also comprise the Tax Administration which prepared the special Rulebook, according to which all the enterprises are obliged to deliver the information on the uncollected receivables for the delivered goods and services. The second part of the article presents the ways of keeping solvency.


Documentary Letter of Credit

rrif - 11.2015, str. 177

A documentary letter of credit is a payment instrument by which a buyer pays to the bank a contracted sum of money, which will be used by the bank to pay to the seller when the seller fulfils the conditions of the delivery and submits the corresponding documents to the bank. In such a case, the documentary letter of credit represents a payment security, as well.
A documentary letter of credit is not much in use in financial transactions in Croatia. The aim of this article is to initiate its use as the payment security.


Lump Sum Taxation of Crafts Business in 2016 and Annual Form PO-SD for 2015

rrif - 11.2015, str. 184

The physical persons who perform an independent activity of crafts business, agriculture and forestry and whose total annual receipts in the taxation period do not exceed the amount of HRK 149,500.00 may choose the lump sum payment of the income tax and surtax, in order to fulfil their tax liabilities in a simpler and easier way.
In the case of lump sum taxation, the tax base, on which the income tax is to be paid during the taxation period, is pre-determined. The final tax liabilities are determined according to the realized turnover presented in the PO-SD Form for 2015, which is to be submitted by the tax payers to the authorized tax office of the Tax Administration according to their place of residence or the usual place of residence until 15 January 2016, at the latest. In the case of the beginning or termination of performing an independent activity during the tax period, the annual lump sum of the income is determined in favour of the tax payer, according to the number of months in which the activities were performed.

Performing Another Business Activity besides Employment

rrif - 11.2015, str. 195

Physical persons may perform another independent business activity besides the employment. The taxation of the independent activity comprises either the income tax or the profit tax, which is recorded in the business records in the same way as if such a person would perform an independent business activity as his/her only and main profession. The taxation rules equally apply to the performance of the independent business activity as the only activity and the activity performed within the employment, regardless of which tax (income tax or profit tax) is to be paid. In view of the contributions for the mandatory insurances, the activity performed beside the employment is regarded as another activity. Such tax payers calculate and pay all the necessary contributions. 


New Provisions in Act on Consumers’ Protection

rrif - 11.2015, str. 202

The Amendments to the Act on Consumers’ Protection have improved the protection of the consumers, especially the vulnerable groups, against the unwanted telephone communication of the sellers for promotional purposes and in the case of signing the contract on the remote services over the phone. The operations of the sellers have also been simplified in terms of displaying two prices in the case of special forms of sales. In the case of duration of such sales up to three days, it is not obligatory to display two prices. The limited period of duration of promotional sales has been cancelled, whereas the conditions and the periods of seasonal discounts of goods are to be determined by the special rulebook. The contract made over the phone is regarded as signed when the consumer sends the signed offer or the signed consent to the seller. 

Right to Proportional Part of Annual Holiday in Case of Termination of Employment

rrif - 11.2015, str. 202

The author of the article explains the employees’ rights and the employer’s obligations arising from the employment status in view of the proportional part of the annual holiday. Due to the fact that the employee has the right to the annual holiday of at least four weeks every year and the annual holiday is determined by the number of days, the least number of the days of the annual holiday depends on the weekly schedule of the working time (20 – 24 days). In the case of termination of employment, the employee has the right to the proportional part of the annual holiday for the current calendar year in which the employment has been terminated.

Conversion and Invalidity of Contract on Crediting according to New Provision of Act on Consumers’ Crediting (Overview of Ruling)

rrif - 11.2015, str. 212

The author of the article presents an overview of the current topic regarding the Amendments to the Act on Consumers’ Crediting, which became effective in September 2015. The Amendments were passed with the aim to legally determine two extremely important issues in the Republic of Croatia. They comprise the conversion of the credits denominated in CHF and the credits denominated in HRK with a foreign currency clause denominated in CHF and the invalidity of the credit with an international feature granted from the creditor or the mediator, who did not have the permission to provide credit services in Croatia.
The above stated Amendments to the Act on Consumers’ Crediting regulate for the first time the possibility to convert the currency of the fulfilment or the currency of the contract on credit into some other currency. The conversion of the credit implies the conversion in order to change the currency, i.e. the foreign currency clause which is originally stated in the contract on credit.

Transfer of Business Stake through Inheritance in Limited Liability Company and Its Taxation Aspect

rrif - 11.2015, str. 219

The author of the article presents the procedure of becoming a member of a limited liability company through inheritance after the death of the family member (derivative status) and accordingly the acquisition of the business stake which belonged to the late member, i.e. the testator. Such an acquisition has some specifics, compared to other ways of acquisition, due to the fact that there are certain changes in the ownership structure of the company ipso iure. The article explains the main terms of the inheritance proceedings, the difference between the terms investment part and business stake, the rights of the successor to the business stake and the limitations which may be imposed to the successor in the company’s act in order to protect the company, as well as the tax status of the inherited business stake.


Protection of Company’s Name

rrif - 11.2015, str. 223

The name of the company is the name under which such a company operates and participates in the legal affairs. It should be clearly different from the name of some other company entered in the court register. The company’s name and all its changes should be entered in the court register.
The article does not comprise all the issues regarding the institute of the company, but it analyses some current and important issues for the practice regarding the company’s name, especially those regarding the principles of the company’s name and its protection.


Preparation and Serving Meals, Drinks and Beverages Organized by voluntary Fire Departments

rrif - 11.2015, str. 226

Voluntary fire departments may under certain occasions organize the preparation and serving of meals, drinks and beverages for their members, the members of other fire departments and citizens. Such events may be organized up to four times in one calendar year and should be reported to the local office of the tourist inspection of the Ministry of Tourism according to their headquarters three days before, at the latest.
The article presents the obligations of fire departments and administrative and punitive measures applied in the case when voluntary fire departments do not act according to the law.

Reporting on Borrowings and Granted Guarantees and Consents of Units of Local and Regional Self-Government

rrif - 11.2015, str. 229

Besides the limitations of borrowings of the units of local and regional self-government and the legal persons who own or co-own such a unit, the system of reporting by these units on the borrowings and the granted guarantees has also been determined.
The article explains the existing limitations and provides a practical example of the above stated reporting.


Negotiation Process in Public Procurement without Prior Announcement

rrif - 11.2015, str. 233

The negotiation process of the public procurement is one of the acceptable procedures of public procurement. In order to apply the subject of the negotiation process, certain pre-conditions should be fulfilled. Accordingly, the application of such a procedure requires the fulfilment of certain presumptions.


Public Procurement in Conditions of Crisis with Asylum Seekers

rrif - 11.2015, str. 242

The unforeseeable events should be specifically considered in the public procurement system.
In view of the crisis with asylum seekers, if the clients who buy the goods, works and services in order to ease such a crisis are obliged to apply the national systems of public procurement, they have to apply the corresponding regulations which determine the public procurement.
The European Commission has passed the corresponding book of regulations which should be applied by the EU member countries in order to conduct in a proper way.


Financing Programs and Projects of Associations with Public Funds only through Public Tenders

rrif - 11.2015, str. 246

The associations whose programs and projects are financed from public sources can obtain such funds through the public tender invited by the provider of public funds. This rule is not applied under specific circumstances, only. Accordingly, the realization of the public tender is one of the basic standards of financing associations from the public sources. 

Gospodarska kretanja u RH i EU-u

rrif - 11.2015, str. 251

1. Opći pregled
2. Cijene u RH i EU-u
3. Industrijska proizvodnja RH i EU-a
4. Građevinarstvo RH i EU-a
5. Vanjskotrgovinska razmjena
6. Trgovina na malo u RH i EU-u
7. Turizam
8. Plaće
9. Likvidnost i solventnost
10. Zaposlenost i nezaposlenost hrvatske i EU-a

Novi propisi

rrif - 11.2015, str. 259

Stručne informacije

rrif - 11.2015, str. 263
Hrvatski računovodstveni sustav HSFI, MRS, MSFI i Tumačenja (1)